面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

——中国科学院办院方针

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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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西安部分客运班线逐步恢复 旅客需严格执行防控措施******

  本报讯(记者文晨)3月23日,西安汽车站传来消息,当天阎良班线恢复营运,首班7:20,末班19:00。从3月24日起,恢复大荔(8:00、9:00、10:00、11:00、12:00、14:30、17:00),蔡邓(12:30),汉中(10:30),官底(09:30),雷村(13:30)班线。从3月25日起,11:00开县、云阳两班次由隔日班恢复为每日班;渭南班线恢复营运,发车时间9:00、12:00、15:00、18:30。

  此外,西安城南客运站3月23日起逐步恢复西安至汉中、城固、洋县、西乡班线。具体发车时间以车站当日公布为准,其他线路恢复时间会及时进行公告。

  目前,西安恢复正常出行。低风险地区所在区县人员离市凭西安“一码通”绿码正常出行,不需查验48小时核酸检测阴性证明。中高风险地区所在区县人员非必要不离市,确需离市的凭西安“一码通”绿码、48小时核酸检测阴性证明正常离市。

  客运站工作人员将对进站旅客、到站旅客严格执行体温检测、检查旅客佩戴口罩、落实“绿码”查验等防控措施。提醒乘车旅客做好个人防护,间隔“一米”安全距离排队,有序进站乘车,并在出行前关注目的地疫情防控政策,提前做好准备。



来源:三秦都市报

编辑:田媛

Samuel Eto'o promises to do "everything" to ensure success of AFCON******

YAOUNDE, Dec. 13 (Xinhua) -- Football legend and newly elected president of Cameroon Football Federation (FECAFOOT) Samuel Eto'o said on Monday that he was resolute to ensure the Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) a "resounding" success.。

The Central African country will host AFCON next month.。

Eto'o made the remarks as he met, for the first time, with the staff of the federation at FECAFOOT headquarters in the capital, Yaounde.。

"We are preparing for the Africa Cup of Nations and we must do everything, I mean everything to ensure its success and so that our brothers (visitors) will face no challenges," Eto'o told the staff in front of reporters.。

"A football team should be at the service of others. Each and every one of you has his or her place which is important for the final results. We don't play but we are at the service of those who play. Every one of us must give the best," Eto'o said.。

He said he was committed to working with the country's authorities and other football stakeholders to revamp the game in the country and organize a hitch-free AFCON.。

Eto'o was elected president of FECAFOOT on Saturday to manage affairs of the football governing body for a period of four years.。

Africa's biggest biennial football tournament, AFCON will take place in Cameroon from January 9 to February 6 next year. Enditem。

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双语热点:仿生眼技术旨在帮助盲人重见光明******

澳大利亚的科学家们花了 3 个月,通过手术给一小群绵羊的视网膜后植入了仿生眼,这群羊从此有了超出它们所能见的“异常敏锐的视力”。这些羊是医学实验的一部分,最终目的是希望能帮助患某些类型失明症的人恢复视力。

Bionic eye tech aims to help blind people see

Once upon a time there were some unusual Australian sheep, with exceptionally sharp eyesight.

有一些不寻常的澳大利亚羊,它们的眼力异常敏锐。

The small flock spent three months last year with bionic, artificial eyes, surgically implanted behind their retinas.

去年,研究人员花了三个月时间,为这群澳大利亚羊做了外科手术,在它们的视网膜后植入人工仿生眼。

These sheep were part of a medical trial that aims to ultimately help people with some types of blindness to be able to see.

这些羊是医学实验的一部分,最终目的是希望能帮助患某些类型失明症的人恢复视力。

The specific aim of the sheep test was to see if the device in question, the Phoenix 99, caused any adverse physical reactions - the bionic eye was said to have been well tolerated by the animals. As a result, an application has now been made to start testing in human patients.

在这些澳洲羊身上所测试的装置叫“凤凰99”(Phoenix 99)仿生眼,具体目的是想观察该装置是否会引起任何不良身体反应。结果显示羊对“凤凰”的耐受度良好。研究团队已经提出人体试验申请。

The project is being carried out by a team of researchers from the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales.

这一项目由悉尼大学和新南威尔士大学的研究人员进行。

The Phoenix 99 is wirelessly linked to a small camera attached to a pair of glasses, it works by stimulating a user's retina. The retina is the layer of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye that convert light into electrical messages, sent to the brain via the optic nerve, and processed into what we see.

“凤凰99”无线连接到配置在眼镜上的小镜头。它通过刺激用户的视网膜而工作。视网膜是眼睛后面的一层光敏层细胞,它把光转换成电子信号,通过视神经发送到大脑,最后形成我们所能看到的图像。

The Phoenix 99 device is able to bypass faulty retina cells, and 'trigger' those that are still able to work.

“凤凰99”可以绕开那些有缺陷的视网膜神经细胞,并“刺激”那些仍有功能的细胞。

"There were no unexpected reactions from the tissue around the device, and we expect it could remain in place for many years," says Samuel Eggenberger, a biomedical engineer at the the University of Sydney's School of Biomedical Engineering.

悉尼大学生物工程学院的生物医学工程师塞缪尔·埃根伯格(Samuel Eggenberger)表示:“设备的周围组织没有出现意外反应,因此预期它可以在那里维持多年。”

At least 2.2 billion people around the world suffer from some form of impaired vision, ranging from a mild level to total blindness, according to the World Health Organisation. The WHO says the financial impact of this, in terms of loss of productivity, is more than $25bn per year for the global economy.

根据世界卫生组织的数据,全世界至少有22亿人受到某种形式的视力障碍,从轻度视力受损到完全失明。世卫组织说,就生产力损失而言,它对全球经济所造成的金融冲击每年高达250亿美元(约合1625亿人民币)。

The use of bionic eye systems to help treat blindness is an industry still very much in its infancy, but with technological developments advancing quickly, one report expects the sector to be worth $426m by 2028.

利用仿生眼帮助治疗失明是一个仍处于起步阶段的行业,但随着科技的快速发展,有一份报告预计到2028年,该行业将会价值高达4.26亿美元。

"Advancements in technology have been redefining ophthalmology," says Dr Diane Hilal-Campo, a New Jersey-based ophthalmologist. "Innovations have not only made diagnosis easier and more precise, but have transformed patient care for the better."

新泽西眼科医生希拉尔·坎波(Diane Hilal-Campo)表示:“科技进步重新定义了眼科。”她说,“创新不仅使诊断更加容易和精确,而且也改善了对患者的护理”。

As an example, she points to a bionic eye that has already been fitted to more than 350 people around the world - Argus II from US firm, Second Sight.

例如,她指出,全球已经有350多人安装了由美国公司Argus II设计的“第二视力”(Second Sight)仿生眼。

This works in the same way as the Phoenix 99, and the initial version was first fitted to a patient as far back as 2011.

这与“凤凰99”仿生眼的工作原理相同,而早期版本的仿生眼第一次安装在患者身上是在2011年。

Second Sight is now continuing work on a new product called Orion. This is a brain implant, and the company says that it has the goal that Orion will be able to treat nearly all forms of profound blindness. The project is still in early clinical phases.

“第二视力”目前正在研制一种新产品叫“猎户座”(Orion)。它是大脑植入装置。该公司说,他们的目标是新产品能治疗几乎所有形式的严重失明。目前,这一项目仍在早期临床阶段。

Other bionic eyes systems include the Prima device, which has been developed by French firm Pixium Vision; and Bionic Eye System by another Australian team, Bionic Vision Technologies.

其他仿生眼系统包括由法国公司Pixium Vision开发的Prima装置;另外一家澳大利亚团队“仿生视觉技术”研究的仿生眼系统。

Dr Hilal-Campo says that one current problem is the high cost of the technology, which makes them "accessible to very few people". The Argus II, for example, costs about $150,000.

希拉尔·坎波医生表示,当前的一个问题是该技术成本高昂,使得只有“极少数人才能获得”,例如,Argus II公司的仿生眼价格约为15万美元。

She adds that as the tech is still in its infancy the results are not yet anywhere near perfect. "I have no doubt that the technology has transformed the lives of patients who have been lucky enough to receive these implants," says Dr Hilal-Campo. "Currently, however, the technology is limited, only allowing for the perception of light and shadows, and, to some extent, shapes.

她说,由于目前技术仍处于初级阶段,结果还远未达到完美。“我深信该技术改变了那些有幸接受这些装置患者的生活。然而,目前这项技术还很有限,只能让患者感知光和影,以及某种程度上的形状”。

"[Yet] I am optimistic, that in the coming years, biotech firms will continue to find new ways to help restore sight in those with vision loss."

“但我是个乐观派,在未来数年生物技术公司将继续寻找新方法帮助那些丧失视觉的人恢复视力。”

Bhavin Shah, a London-based optometrist, agrees that bionic eyes still have a long way to go. He compares them with digital cameras, which were first invented in 1975, and then took decades before they were widely available.

伦敦验光师巴文·沙阿(Bhavin Shah)也认为仿生眼还有很长一段路要走。他还把它与数码相机相比。1975年发明的数码相机,之后经过了几十年才得到广泛使用。

"I believe that once the quality of the technology reaches a suitable standard, and approaches something approximating the vision achieved by a healthy eye, this technology will be much more commonplace," he says.

沙阿说:“我相信一旦技术质量达到一定标准,并接近健康人眼所达到的视力,该技术就会更加普及。”

"However, there is still a strong drive to treat or prevent blindness from occurring in the first place."

“然而, ”他说,“首先治疗或是预防失明仍是最重要的。”

Technologies that detect and diagnose vision impairments, he explains, are likely to have a much wider impact in the short-term. "There are [now] more advanced, easier to use, more reliable and inter-connected diagnostic tools," Mr Shah says.

他解释说,检测和诊断视觉受损的技术在短期内可能会产生更广泛影响。“(现在)有更先进、更容易使用、更可靠以及相互关联的诊断工具”,他说。

"For example, we are able to quickly take multiple scans of different structures within the eye, examine them in greater resolution, and share them quickly with colleagues. Artificial intelligence is also able to take decisions [on this], in some cases faster, and with greater reliability, than experienced clinicians."

“例如,我们可以迅速对眼睛内部不同结构进行多次扫描,然后以更高分辨率对其进行检测,并与同事们迅速共享。人工智能还能对此做出判断,在某些情况下,要比有经验的临床医生做出更快和更可靠的判断”。

Dr Karen Squier, an associate professor and chief of low-vision services at the Southern College of Optometry in Memphis, Tennessee, believes that some of the most important improvements in eyecare technology are often the smallest.

美国田纳西孟菲斯南方验光学院副教授兼低视力服务负责人凯伦·斯奎尔(Karen Squier)相信,眼保健技术中一些最重要的改善往往是在于那些最细小的地方。

She points to thing like the Apple iPhone's accessibility features. These include a voiceover function whereby the user can get audio descriptions of what is on the screen - from the battery percentage, to who is calling, and what app your finger is on.

斯奎尔指的是像苹果手机的一些辅助性功能,包括语音功能,用户可以通过该功能了解画面的语音描述 - 从电池还剩多少、到何人来电,以及手指触摸的应用程序等。

Dr Squier also highlights Microsoft's Seeing AI app, which uses a smartphone's camera to identify people and objects, and describe them audibly. It can also check barcodes and then tell you what the item is, or read handwriting out loud, such as a letter from a grandchild.

斯奎尔博士还特别提到了微软AI(人工智能)APP,它利用智能手机的摄像头来辨别人和物体,并用语音描述。它还可以检查条形码,然后告诉你是什么物品,或者大声读出手写笔迹,例如孙辈孩子的手写信。

"That's probably the technology that people get most excited about, because it does a lot of different things, and just uses the camera and operating software that is built into the phone already," adds Dr Squier "And it's usually pretty easy for people to learn how to use."

“那可能是最让人们感到兴奋的技术,因为它可以做许多不同的事情,只是用了手机中已有的照相机和应用软件就能做到,” 斯奎尔博士补充说,“而且,人们通常很容易学会如何使用。”

Longer-term, she believes some of the main benefits of eyecare technologies will come from integrating them into disability-friendly public policies and systems. One example could involve using technology that can alert vision-impaired passengers of bus timetables and alerting them when a bus is on its way, eliminating potential problems at the bus stop.

斯奎尔认为,从长远来看,她相信眼保健技术的一些主要好处则来自于未来可以把它融入到制定对残障人士友善的公共政策和系统中,例如,可以利用这一技术提醒视力受损的乘客汽车时间表,并提示他们公交车是否已经在路上,以减少车站的潜在问题。

That isn't to say that Dr Squier doesn't see more sophisticated technologies - bionic eyes included - having a significant impact in the future as technology advances.

当然,这并不是说斯奎尔看不到更复杂的眼保健技术 - 包括仿生眼 - 在未来随着技术进步所产生的重大影响。

"I think even bionic eyes are going in the right direction," she says. "But we'll have to see how it goes."

“我认为甚至仿生眼也是朝着正确方向发展,但我们将必须要看看其发展的情况如何,”她说。

揭秘小米「智能眼镜」******摘要

在AR眼镜出现之前,能显示单色信息的智能眼镜会是一个成功的「过渡」产品吗?

据说今年苹果秋季发布会上最令人失望的不是 iPhone 13 系列升级程度太小,而是没有 One More Thing。还有不少人期待,在最后这个传统环节上,库克会不会拿出个超级新品,让人们惊喜一下,例如传说中的苹果 VR/AR 头显。

人们之所有这样的期望,其中一个重要原因是因为,小米赶在苹果发布会前一天,发布了一款小米智能眼镜,还拍了一段概念视频,一下子吊起了人们的好奇心。

虽然海报上明明白白写的是「概念新品」和「探索版」,结合此前字节收购 Pico VR 和当下火热的元宇宙,人们不禁猜想,传说中的 AR 确实「未来已来」了吗?

智能眼镜技术成熟了?

根据发布的信息,小米这款探索版智能眼镜重 51 克,重量和体积上已经非常趋近普通眼镜。右侧镜片通过 Micro Led 光机配合光波导镜片,能够实现信息、地图等简单信息的显示;同时,配有蓝牙和触控,支持进行语音和手部操作实现翻译、拍照等功能。

而小米之所以能够曝光这样一款轻薄的智能眼镜,主要还是因为相关的光学和显示技术已经趋近成熟。

最近,深圳举行的光博会上,舜宇光学透露,小米智能眼镜采用的是舜宇光学的光机方案,镜片用的是英国厂商 WaveOptics 的镜片。

智能眼镜或者 AR 眼镜类产品,最大的技术难点在于光学(光机)和显示(镜片)。

光机+光波导镜片|WaveOptics

AR 眼镜的显示系统可以简单理解为一套投影系统,光机就是投影仪,而镜片就是幕布。要想智能眼镜足够轻薄,则光机和镜片两个部分不仅要小巧、耗电低,且显示要有足够亮度;如果是室外场景,则对镜片的透光度要求较高。

在光机方面,此前业内知名产品如 Magic Leap 使用的是 LCoS(Liquid Crystal on Silicon 硅基液晶)方案,微软 HoloLens 2 使用的是 LBS(激光束扫描 Laser Beam Scanning)。业内人士 A 君告诉极客公园(ID:geekpark),HoloLens 的 LBS 方案由于激光往往需要扩束,光机体积下不来,颜色和均匀性也并不优秀。

而最近几年 MicroLED 技术的逐渐发展,不仅让人们看到下一代显示屏的新材料,也让智能眼镜行业看到了一个真正让 C 端产品爆发的机会。相比上述方案,MicroLED 最大优势是自发光、色域广、亮度高,同时光机足够小巧。缺点是如想实现全彩,成本太高且无法保证良率,所以小米智能眼镜采用的舜宇光学光机即是单色绿光。

小米智能眼镜采用的舜宇光学的光机方案,目前能做到 640*480 分辨率、29 度视场角、亮度峰值达到 200 万尼特——这只是 MicroLED 屏幕的亮度参数,经过衍射波导后真正到人眼的光能大约小于参数的 0.3%。

WaveOptics的衍射光栅传播说明|WaveOptics

在显示方面,光波导(optical waveguide),尤其是衍射光波导是公认目前最适合 AR 眼镜的显示方案。衍射光波导简单来说就是让光机发出的光信号,通过衍射光栅在镜片中以全反射传播,并最后再通过光栅被导入人眼。

在衍射光波导中,又以表面浮雕光栅(SRG)为主流,因为量产工艺相对成熟,微软 HoloLens 等产品采用的就是表面浮雕光栅。

表面浮雕光栅类的衍射光波导实现路径之一,是通过光刻和刻蚀加工出带有光栅的母版,然后在光学平面上铺上压印胶,然后利用纳米压印技术把母版在平面上将光栅「压出来」。

WaveOptics 采用的是二元光栅方案,此前公布的 Katana 方案即为单层,28 度视场角,不出意外这个应该就是小米智能眼镜选用的方案。

相较于 Magic Leap 和 微软 HoloLens 的三层光波导,WaveOptics 的 Katana 型号产品的优势在于容易加工,重量较轻,缺点是均匀性较差,绿色效率低,FOV 也相对较小。

单色 MicroLED+单色表面浮雕光栅衍射光波导显示方案的相对成熟,让各大公司看到了让智能眼镜贴近普通眼镜的机会。

业内人士透露,目前国内不少巨头都在尝试这个方案,「下半年行业会非常热闹」。

         小米智能眼镜显示的绿色的简单信息|小米

小米:我做的不是 AR 眼镜

单色、单光机(单目)、低分辨率、功能减少,这款小米智能眼镜看起来和《失控玩家》中出现的 AR 眼镜相比,确实低配了不少。

但也许这正是小米的聪明之处,如果仔细看小米的宣传文案和视频,会发现里面没有提到一句 AR 或者增强现实。

据业内人士透露,小米智能眼镜项目其实是小米手机团队在做,内部从来不叫这款产品 AR 眼镜,而是「信息提示器」——这个词很好的定义了目前轻薄型智能眼镜的定位。

Magic Leap 和微软 HoloLens 两代产品的试水,揭示了一个行业真理,以目前的技术成熟度,要想做到类似《失控玩家》中眼镜的效果,设备成本过高;要想保持正常眼镜形态,目前能做到最好的解决方案就是「信息提示器」,即只用单色显示简单的文字或者地图信息,主要计算单元依然是手机或者其他主流数码设备。

         WaveOptics 的 Katana 方案优势在于能做的比较轻薄小巧|小米

WaveOptics 等光学厂商其实之前也有多色、高清的方案,但显然单色、低分辨率方案在某种程度上更适合目前的市场需求。在 AR 设备这样一个尚未被验证的市场中,功能、效果、尺寸、功耗和成本的平衡,可能比单纯追求理想中的效果更重要。

当光学和显示技术及模组基本清晰之后,硬件就算基本上确定了。这个时候,产品能用怎样的外观,实现什么样的功能,UI/UX 应该是怎样的,聊到这些话题,各大公司的产品经理们就都不困了。

两个月前,Snap 公司以 5 亿美元价格将 WaveOptics 收入麾下,公司 CEO Evan Spiegel 预测 AR 眼镜至少需要 10 年时间才能成为主流。不过,在那之前,「信息提示器」类型的智能眼镜,或许会以「功能机」的身份,为未来替代手机的 AR 眼镜,起到「过渡」的作用。


图片来源:小米、WaveOptics

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